Blood transfusion is a life-saving medical procedure, but it can also be dangerous if the blood is not safe. In recent years, there have been significant advances in blood quality control, and new methods are being developed that could help to further reduce the risk of transfusion reactions.
One of the most promising new methods of blood quality control is the use of automation. Automation can help to reduce the risk of human error in blood collection and testing. This is important because human error is one of the leading causes of transfusion reactions.
In addition to automation, there are a number of other new technologies that are being developed or being used for blood quality control. These include:
Blood Collection Step
Blood Collection from Donor. Safety starts from the donors. The phlebotomist are the experts for drawing donor's blood but they face some challenges for accessing the donor's vein. However, Vein illumination devices uses near infrared light to search the proper vein on the skin and make minimal punctures for collecting blood. Those machines are provided by AccuVein, Vein Viewer, Venoscpoe and Neinite in the market.
Collection of Components from Cell Separator. Cell separators are machines that can be used to extract different blood components from a donor. The most common types of cell separators use either intermittent or continuous centrifugation. These machines use pre-packaged, sterile bags, tubing, and centrifuge devices. The total time it takes to collect the blood components (known as aphaeresis time) varies depending on the type of procedure and device used. The most common brands that provide the service are Haemonitics Corporation, Baxter, Fresenius Kabi, etc.
Immunohaematology System. Automation has brought quality to immunohaematology testing by preventing sample identification errors, human errors in interpretation of results, and transcription errors while documenting the results. The key changes are Barcord system, interpretation of the resert and transcription error during the documentation. Biorad, Ortho CLinical Diagnostics and other brands are providing such platforms.
Electronic cross-matching. The software uses the barcode to identify the sample and prevent the allocation of blood that is incompatible with the recipient's blood type. It also checks the consistency of historical data by comparing the results of tests conducted on different samples and at different times. Finally, it allocates a unit of blood that is most compatible with the recipient's blood type and closest to its expiration date.
Automation in Serological Tests for preventing disease transmission. Automated systems in blood centers offer advantages in quality, reproducibility, and reduced errors. All ELISA systems need basic automation, and sophisticated systems perform all steps. Commercially available automated immunoassay analyzers and are replacing traditional enzyme immunoassays. Abbott, Roche, NanoEntek or other brands are providing those systems in the market.
Sterility Testing Step
Culture growth or counting system. Most of the time the blood culture and counting work is lengthy and tedious job, but it is the most important part for ensuring the safety of the blood quality. To check the existance of microorganisms growth in the blood, Cardon dioxide (CO2) is being automatically monitored to detect any aerobic and anaerobin bacterial contamination. For the further step, residual white blood cell (rWBC) is being counted after the filtration to prevent unexpected immune reaction after transfusion. Check this article if you want to see what might happen if rWBC is not successfully eliminated before the transfusion (Transfusion Safety: Cell Counters & Leukoreduction).
These are just a few of the new technologies that are being developed for blood quality control. As these technologies continue to develop, they have the potential to further reduce the risk of transfusion reactions and make blood transfusions even safer.
Benefits of new blood quality control methods
The new blood quality control methods mentioned above offer a number of potential benefits, including:
Increased safety of blood transfusions. By using more sensitive and specific methods of testing, these new methods can help to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections.
Reduced risk of human error. By automating blood collection and testing, these new methods can help to reduce the risk of human error.
Improved efficiency of blood banks. By automating blood collection and testing, these new methods can help to improve the efficiency of blood banks.
Blood transfusion is a life-saving medical procedure, but it can also be dangerous if the blood is not safe. In recent years, there have been significant advances in blood quality control, and new methods are being developed that could help to further reduce the risk of transfusion reactions. These new methods offer a number of potential benefits, including increased safety of blood transfusions, reduced risk of human error, and improved efficiency of blood banks. As these technologies continue to develop, they have the potential to make blood transfusions even safer.
1. Gupte, SnehalataC. “Automation in Blood Centre: Its Impact on Blood Safety.” Asian Journal of Transfusion Science, vol. 9, no. 3, 2015, p. 6, https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-6247.157016.
2. Van Rhenen, et al. “Quality and Standardization in Blood Component Preparation with an Automated Blood Processing Technique.” Transfusion Medicine, vol. 8, no. 4, 1998, pp. 319–324, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3148.1998.00168.x.
3. “What Happens to Donated Blood.” ? ? | Red Cross Blood Services, www.redcrossblood.org/donate-blood/blood-donation-process/what-happens-to-donated-blood.html?adobe_mc=MCMID%3D88342630189993247023935755084855895052%7CMCORGID%3D723A22C757518E2C7F000101%2540AdobeOrg%7CTS%3D1687828626. Accessed 27 June 2023.
4. “Robot Uses Artificial Intelligence and Imaging to Draw Blood.” Rutgers University, www.rutgers.edu/news/robot-uses-artificial-intelligence-and-imaging-draw-blood. Accessed 27 June 2023.
Residual Leukocyte Counter
[ADAM rWBC HT]
Residual White Blood Cell Counter